AS.130.101.  Ancient Near Eastern Civilizations.  3 Credits.  

Review of important issues in ancient Near Eastern history and culture from the Neolithic era to the Persian period. Included will be an examination of the Neolithic agricultural revolution, the emergence of cities, states and writing, and formation of empires. Cultures such as Sumer and Akkad, Egypt, the Hittites, Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Persians will be discussed.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.105.  Freshman Seminar: Sex, Drugs, and Rock & Roll in Ancient Egypt.  3 Credits.  

This seminar explores the social roles of sexuality, alcohol, other drugs, music, fragrance, and sensuality in secular and religious areas of Egyptian life, largely but not exclusively during the New Kingdom, ca. 1500 to 1000 B.C. The ancient attitudes towards these elements will be explored through the ancient textual sources in translation and the artistic representations.

Area: Humanities

Writing Intensive

AS.130.106.  Freshman Seminar: Ancient Empires.  3 Credits.  

Freshman OnlyA case-study approach to the political, social, and cultural history of one of the ancient Near Eastern states commonly described as an “empire,” such as the Akkadian Empire, the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Neo-Babylonian Empire, or the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire. Individual classes mix a discussion of theoretical issues relevant to the study of ancient empires with close attention to primary sources.

Area: Humanities

Writing Intensive

AS.130.111.  Freshman Seminar: Cleopatra's Egypt.  3 Credits.  

Egypt in the time of Cleopatra was a fascinating mix of peoples and cultures. Jews, Greeks, and other ethnic groups lived in this unique landscape along with the native Egyptians. In this class we will consider the rich civilization and complex history of Egypt during the reign of this legendary Queen.

Area: Humanities

Writing Intensive

AS.130.119.  Ancient Medicine.  3 Credits.  

A survey of medicine and medical practice in the ancient Near East and, to a lesser extent, the Aegean world. The abundant sources range from magical spells to surprisingly “scientific” treatises and handbooks. Readings are selected from translations of primary sources in the writings of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Israel, Greece, and Rome. Topics will include the sources of our knowledge; the nature of medical practitioners, medical treatment, and surgery; beliefs about disease and the etiology of illness; concepts of contagion and ritual purity.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.123.  Myths and Monsters in Mesopotamia.  3 Credits.  

This course is an introduction to the religion of ancient Mesopotamia (3000-500 BC) through its myths and legends. We will approach Mesopotamian religion through both the textual and archaeological record. Although the focus will be on the myths and legends of Mesopotamia, we will also discuss rituals, magic, and household religion. By the end of this course, students should be familiar with the chief deities of the Mesopotamian pantheon, important texts pertaining to these deities, and the material culture of Mesopotamian religion.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.124.  Texts, Tablets, and Tweets: The Sociolinguistics of Writing.  3 Credits.  

This course examines the evolution of writing and the relationship between speech and writing in ancient and modern societies. We will examine the ways in which orthography, scripts, and the visual components inherent to written language (e.g., scripts, fonts, emoticons, diacritics etc.) are used to create and/or project certain social identities in these new written spaces. A primary aim of this course is to generate discussion regarding the ways in which writing in all of its forms—at the institutional, group, and individual level, in official documents, in emails, texts, tweets, and graffiti, using standardized and non-standard orthographies, in both regulated and unregulated spaces—can be a social and often political act of identity. The writing assignments for the course will encourage you to consider the ways in which writing can be harnessed to express social identities. You will work as a group to develop your own writing system and present it to the class. This will hone your creative and critical thinking skills and give you practice collaborating on a project. You will also research and conduct an original analysis on a corpus of writing.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.126.  Gods and Monsters in Ancient Egypt.  3 Credits.  

A basic introduction to Egyptian Religion, with a special focus on the nature of the gods and how humans interact with them. We will devote particular time to the Book of the Dead and to the "magical" aspects of religion designed for protective purposes.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.127.  A Good Scribe & Learned Man: Wisdom & Knowledge in Ancient Egypt.  3 Credits.  

Already in Antiquity, the Egyptians had a reputation for wisdom and "secret" knowledge. But what was the reality behind this reputation? Who was a "wise man" or "wise woman" in Egypt? How didthey organize and teach scientific ideas and concepts? How did they compose, maintain, and transmit the "books" containing their canon of knowledge? From the abundant ethical, scientific, literary, magical, and religious writings of the Egyptians we will attempt to understand what wisdom and knowledge meant to the Ancient Egyptians.

Area: Humanities

Writing Intensive

AS.130.129.  Freshman Seminar: The Art of War and Peace in Ancient Mesopotamia.  3 Credits.  

Ancient Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq, Syria, and Iran, is the “cradle of civilization.” It witnessed new inventions previously unknown to the ancient world: urban cities, writing systems, kingship, and empires. This course examines the close relationship between war and peace and art in ancient Mesopotamia (ancient Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria) from 3500 to 539 BCE. During the semester students will be introduced to the art, architecture, and archaeology of ancient Mesopotamia. This course is aimed at students without a previous background in art historical or archaeological approaches to Mesopotamia, but more advanced students are welcome.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.131.  It's Alive! Statues in Ancient Egypt.  3 Credits.  

Statues in ancient Egypt were extremely powerful images. Following the appropriate rituals, a statue could eat, breath, smell, and see. Wealthy men and women, including the king and his high officials, commissioned statues of themselves to erect in temples and their tombs. This allowed them to benefit from offerings set in front of the statues and essentially live forever. Throughout their history, the Egyptians also carved statues of prisoners, servants, and deities. In this class, we will explore a variety of statues from throughout ancient Egyptian history. How did the Egyptians use statues, and why did they create these objects? Do the answers to these questions vary for different types of statues? In considering this, we will discuss manufacturing techniques, materials, subject matter, style, and the relationship between text and image. However, we will also examine other topics that may at first seem to be less obviously related, including mummies and the process of mummification, religion and magic in ancient Egypt, temples and tombs, and funerary beliefs. In order for students to directly analyze statues, we will take advantage of Baltimore's museums and visit collections of Egyptian art throughout the semester.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.133.  From Hebrews to Jews: The Development of Jewish Identity in the Ancient World.  3 Credits.  

What happened to the ten lost tribes of Israel? Was Abraham Jewish? How far back can Jewish ethnicity be traced using genetic research? These questions and more will be topics of discussion as we explore the development of Jewish identity, beginning with the first evidence of a people called “Israel” in the 13th century BCE and ending with the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. The class will start with a discussion of different types of identity, including ethnic, religious, and cultural identities, as well as how identity can vary between members of the same community. We will also consider how ancient peoples can be studied using textual and archaeological sources. Then we will take a loosely diachronic approach to the development of Jewish identity, from the elusive origins of the Israelites to their existence as a monarchic state under rulers such as King David; from their forced displacement under the Assyrian empire to the Diaspora caused by the Romans. Using primary and secondary source materials, we will assess the key developments in group identity that took place at these times and the factors which influenced them.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.135.  Pyramids, Temples and Tombs.  3 Credits.  

Introduction to the monuments and culture of Egypt from 3500 B.C. to 100 A.D. From the pyramids at Giza to Hellenistic Alexandria, this course surveys in slide illustrated lectures the remains of one of the world’s greatest early cultures.

Area: Humanities

Writing Intensive

AS.130.138.  Jerusalem: The Holy City.  3 Credits.  

This course will survey the cultural history of Jerusalem over three millennia, primarily as the symbolic focus of three faiths: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The course content will focus on the transformation of sacred space as reflected by literary and archaeological evidence by examining the artifacts, architectural monuments, and iconography in relation to written sources. The creation of mythic Jerusalem through event and experience will be examined. Course requirements will focus on the development of advanced writing skills and critical thinking.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.139.  Stargazing and Reading the Future: Science and Magic in Ancient Egypt.  3 Credits.  

Is astrology science? Is ancient medicine magic? What is the logic of divination? I invite you to explore the answers with me by traveling back in time to ancient Egypt, a place where knowledge from the ancient Mediterranean world once converged. We will start by bridging the difference between science and magic and establishing the importance of contextualization in cross-culture studies. The topics range from the birth of astronomy, the language and logic of dream books to gynecological texts’ connections with love magic.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.140.  Hebrew Bible / Old Testament.  3 Credits.  

The Bible is arguably the most read and yet most misinterpreted book of all time, one of the most influential and yet most misapplied work of literature. The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) is Scripture to Jews and Christians yet also a rich collection of literature w/ numerous literary genres that has been highly influential on secular Western culture. At its core, it is our most important literary source that (when wed with archaeology) helps us to understand the people and culture of Iron Age Israel and Judah. This is an introductory course surveying of the books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) giving primary attention to the religious ideas they contain and the ancient contexts in which they were composed. Topics include: The Academic Study of Religion, Ancient Creation Accounts, Ancestral Religion, The Exodus and Moses, Covenant, Tribalism and Monarchy, The Ideology of Kingship, Prophecy, Priestly Sources, Psalms, Wisdom Literature, and Apocalyptic Thought.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.147.  What My Soul Said To Me.  3 Credits.  

“What My Soul Said to Me” will be focused on looking at the mortuary culture in Middle Kingdom Egypt through various types of evidence. By looking at the funerary culture of this age, students will learn about the funerary culture of Egypt during this period and will also become more familiar with the Middle Kingdom period in general. More importantly, students will be encouraged to think about larger topics involved in archaeological and historical studies, while using Middle Kingdom period Egypt as a setting to focus those discussions. This course is aimed at students without a previous background in archaeology or Egyptology, but more advanced students are welcome.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.148.  Freshman Seminar: The Development of Useful Things: A Comparative Approach to the Study of Technology and Economy in the Ancient World.  3 Credits.  

This archaeology course will provide an overview of technological developments in the ancient world (from the Neolithic period to the beginning of the first millennium CE) and will explore their effects on the organization of economies and societies. Each week we will discuss a technological innovation and assess its impact on the societies that introduced it. This course will focus primarily on developments and case studies from the ancient Near Eastern and eastern Africa. We will depart from this trajectory to engage in relevant comparisons with developments occurring in other areas of the ancient world. Throughout the course, social aspects of technologies will be explored alongside economic aspects. In addition to focusing on the development of technologies as ‘objects’ (stone tools, pottery, metals, etc.), we will study non-material technologies, that arose as solutions to practical problems and have altered the world in important ways (agriculture, animal domestication, writing, etc.). This course approaches past technologies from a number of different perspectives: (1) by learning about particular anthropological and archaeological case studies, (2) by engaging with scholarship focusing on major theoretical and philosophical themes, (3) by engaging with ethnographic research, both in the form of articles and in the form of documentaries, and (4) by means of thought experiments and debates. This course will benefit humanities, social science, and science-oriented students who have an interest in understanding the inner-workings of two important aspects of human societies: technology and economy

Area: Humanities

AS.130.149.  "Egyptomania": A Consumer's Guide to Ancient Egypt.  3 Credits.  

Chances are you’ve heard of Cleopatra and the curse of King Tut’s tomb. You may have even met a mummy or two, whether in the flesh or on the silver screen. Even today, 5,000 years after the dawn of Egyptian civilization—and half-way around the globe—the land of the pharaohs continues to fascinate the Western world. But, how is it that ancient Egypt came to be so deeply entrenched in Western culture? This course considers the history of Western interaction with ancient Egypt and examines the consequences of laying claim to a culture that is not one’s own. We will approach our study through the lens of consumption, both material and cultural, situating these phenomena within their historical and contemporary contexts. By engaging with both primary and secondary sources, we will consider the power relations embedded in Egyptian archaeology and the writing of history as well as the ethics of collecting and displaying ancient Egyptian material culture. We will also investigate the popularization of ancient Egypt known as “Egyptomania,” focusing on the commoditization of ancient Egyptian culture in Western media and merchandise. By the end of the class, students will be able to engage with the complex, yet fundamental, question of who owns culture and what is at stake when we uncritically consume an image of the past.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.170.  Diplomacy and Conflict in the Ancient Middle East.  3 Credits.  

The Middle East is home to the invention of agriculture, cities, and writing. It is also in the Middle East that we find evidence of humanity’s earliest diplomatic activity in, for instance, the actual letters sent by ancient kings to one another, the treaties drawn up after their conflicts, and the inscriptions that commemorate their conquests. In this course, we examine texts such as these to explore questions such as: How do we characterize the international system of the ancient Middle East? Does this system change over the approximately two millennia for which we have documentation? Is it better to approach ancient diplomacy through present-day eyes or in the context of ancient world-views? Is an understanding of diplomacy in the ancient Middle East relevant to our understanding of modern international relations? All texts read in translation.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.174.  Scientists and Soothsayers: The Pursuit of Knowledge in Ancient Egypt.  3 Credits.  

The ancient world viewed Egypt as a repository of wisdom and learning, and even today, Egypt possesses in the modern consciousness a reputation for secret knowledge. From within Egypt, a diverse corpus of texts meant to record and transmit knowledge have survived and attest to Egyptian “scholarship.” This course will focus on what kinds of knowledge belonged to this written tradition (3000 BCE to 300 CE) and how those texts reflected broader social and cultural norms. This course will also consider, where relevant, the relationship between the intellectual traditions of Egypt and other societies of the ancient world, particularly Greece and Mesopotamia. Strong correlations between the Egyptian material and modern intellectual and scientific traditions, such as mathematics, astronomy, and medicine exist; but magic, divination, and religion were often treated in the same systematic, critical manner by the Egyptians. Thus the course will challenge modern understandings of science, and modern dichotomies such as rational versus irrational. After a brief introduction to Egypt, the first few weeks will concern who created these texts, who had access tothem, and their physical and intellectual milieu. Then, each week will cover a particular area of knowledge, its primary sources, social and multicultural context, and its relationship to the theoreticalthemes of the course.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.177.  World Prehistory: An Anthropological Perspective.  3 Credits.  

How and why did our nomadic hunting and gathering ancestors become farmers? What led agricultural societies to build cities, develop writing, religious institutions, wage war, and trade for exotic goods? This course surveys prehistory and ancient history from the origins of human culture to the emergence civilization. Although prehistory and ancient history yield evidence of tremendous cultural diversity this course emphasizes common elements of past human experience, culture, and culture change. These include the origins of modern humans and their adjustment to a variety of post-ice age environments, shifts from hunting and gathering to agricultural lifeways, and the initial development of the world’s earliest cities and civilizations.

Area: Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.130.202.  Ancient Mythology.  3 Credits.  

This course explores the mythology of the ancient Near East from the invention of writing in Sumer in 3000 B.C. until the conquest of Alexander the Great near the end of the first millennium B.C. Mythological texts from Mesopotamia, Egypt, Anatolia, the Levant, and the Bible will be read from a comparative perspective. Special attention is paid to the origin and development of the epic, culminating in the great Epic of Gilgamesh, but considerable time is also given to the vast mythological and historical literature, and such diverse genres as love poetry, proverbs, humorous dialogues, Omens, and legal and medical texts. All readings are in English translation.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.203.  Archaeology of Africa: From Human Origins to the Emergence of Civilizations.  3 Credits.  

This course examines Africa’s ancient past from the emergence of biologically modern humans, ancient hunter-gatherers, the earliest animal herding and farming populations, to cities and civilizations. While Egypt plays an undeniably central role in world history, this course concentrates in particular on ancient geographies other than Egypt.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.205.  Tutankhamun and His Time.  3 Credits.  

The reign of Tutankhamun ended a period of fascinating upheaval in ancient Egypt, when a king attempted to stamp out the traditional gods and introduce monotheism. He changed the art of Egypt radically and built a new city from which to rule. This course covers the second half of the 14th century B.C., including the time of the heretic king Akhenaten, his wife Nefertiti, and his possible son Tutankhamun who ruled over all Egypt as a boy. So many questions still exist about this time and so many surprising ideas have been put forward to explain them. We will pursue as many as we can. Illustrated lectures will combine with group and individual presentations by students, supplemented with videos and online discussions with scholars who study this time period.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.206.  Distilling the Ancients: An Anthropological Approach to Alcohol in the Ancient World.  3 Credits.  

The consumption of alcohol is one of the oldest known human practices. Almost every culture has some type of mind-altering beverage that influences and shapes many facets of society. This course is a cross-cultural examination of the power and significance of alcohol in the ancient world. From the Neolithic to the Classical symposium to the Egyptian festival, the importance of communal drinking—alcohol or otherwise—is a uniting factor across the ancient world. This class will unpack the impact and significance of alcohol across a wide-range of ancient cultures, and examine what the study of alcohol might reveal about ancient societies. This includes alcohol as medicine, its religious and ritual functions, alcohol as a community unifier (and divider) and identity builder, and its practical and economic uses. Students will apply anthropological and archaeological theories to understand why, how, and to what effect humans drink.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.214.  The Origins of Civilization: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.  3 Credits.  

One of the most significant transformations in human history was the “urban revolution” in which cities, writing, and social classes formed for the first time. In this course, we compare five areas where this development occurred: China, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, Egypt, and Mesoamerica (Mexico/Guatemala/Honduras/Belize). In each region, we review the physical setting, the archaeological and textual evidence, and the theories advanced to explain the rise (and eventual collapse) of these complex societies.

Area: Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.130.216.  History of the Jews in Modern Times, from the Middle Ages to 1917.  3 Credits.  

A broad survey of the significant political and cultural dynamics of Jewish history in the Medieval, Early-Modern, and Modern Eras.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.218.  Language and Society.  3 Credits.  

We all use language every day—not just to communicate information, but to communicate who we are. How does this work? What do our language choices tell others about us? This course will consider some of the ways in which language and society are entangled—both the ways that different social categories are encoded in language, and the ways that groups of people use language to define themselves. Along the way, the course will address questions of dialect, diglossia, multilingualism, style, language planning, politeness, language and gender, language and power, and more.This course is designed for students without a background in linguistics. During the semester students will learn the basic research methods used by sociolinguists, then complete a project on a topic of their choosing.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.244.  The Archaeology of Animals: An Introduction to Zooarchaeology.  3 Credits.  

This course is intended to introduce students to the discipline of zooarchaeology, the study of animal remains from archaeological sites. Humans have long depended on their animal counterparts not only for nutritional value, but for their economic, symbolic, and social value, making the study of animals in the human past deeply revealing of the entangled worlds that humans and animals lived in together. In service of this investigation, zooarchaeology, or the study of animal remains from archaeological sites, has developed interdisciplinary techniques in order to address archaeological questions. Zooarchaeology has the ability to provide insight into ancient human behavior around the world including economic strategies, dietary practices, religious observances, ecological interactions, and more. The course will introduce students to the basics of archaeological investigation and the identification of faunal osteological remains on archaeological sites, as well as some of the basic tools and techniques used to derive meaningful conclusions from primary data. Students will be introduced to the principles of comparative anatomy and the major elements of mammalian, avian, and fish skeletons. Students will also be taught to recognize significant markers for taphonomy, sex, butchery, age, and pathology and how this information is used to generate archaeological knowledge. Supplementary readings that help illustrate the application of these techniques to archaeological interpretation will be provided and discussed in class.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.259.  Ancient Science.  3 Credits.  

A survey of scientific practices and technological innovations in the ancient world, including astronomy, medicine, law, and divination. Special attention will be devoted to the relationship between magic and science during the periods covered.

Area: Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.130.300.  History of Ancient Mesopotamia.  3 Credits.  

A survey of the history of Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.301.  History of Ancient Syria-Palestine.  3 Credits.  

A survey of the history of Ancient Syria and Canaan, including Ancient Israel.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.302.  History: Ancient Syria-Palestine II.  3 Credits.  

A survey of the history of Ancient Syria and Cannan, including ancient Israel. Taught with AS.134.661. Cross-listed with Jewish Studies.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.323.  Cleopatra's Egypt: Ptolemaic-Roman Egypt.  3 Credits.  

This lecture course is a survey of the history, society, and culture of Graeco-Roman Egypt. We will concentrate on Ptolemaic Egypt (ca. 332-30 B.C.), but will also devote some time to Roman Egypt, especially to the subjects of the decline of paganism and spread of Christianity in Egypt.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.328.  Ancient Egypt /Africa.  3 Credits.  

Recent excavation and research have shed light on several ancient cultures of the Nile and its tributaries.We will look at the available archaeological and textual (all Egyptian) evidence for these societies and their interactions with Egypt between 3500 and 300 B.C. We will also discuss research aims and methods employed now and in the past in Egypt and the Sudan.

Area: Humanities

Writing Intensive

AS.130.330.  The Garden of Eden.  3 Credits.  

References to the story of the Garden of Eden can be found in every significant issue of our time, from sex to politics, from race to the environment. The course will examine the story itself as well as how it's been interpreted, leading up to today. Enthusiastic participation required.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.334.  Egyptian Funerary Arts in the Archaeological Museum.  3 Credits.  

This class will aim to cover the production and choice of funerary objects for Egyptian elite tombs in several eras of antiquity: the Middle and New Kingdoms, the Third Intermediate Period, and the Late Periods. Students will work with specific objects after learning generally about them, and they will carry out analyses of materials, pigments, construction methods, and erosion and degradation effects. They will create a virtual exhibition for the Museum's website and present their results for inclusion in the museum cataloguing project.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.341.  Traditionalism vs. Orthodoxy in the Modern Era: The Case of Judaism.  3 Credits.  

During the Modern Era in European history, the Traditionalist Jewish civilization of Europe that had evolved over many centuries went into deep crisis. The new political, social, and intellectual realities which characterized Modernity seriously challenged, overwhelmed, and indeed threatened to destroy the Jewish Traditionalist culture and society. In response, different Traditionalist thinkers and communities evolved a number of strategies for surviving in a modern environment, strategies that unexpectedly transformed Traditionalism into something different, which came to be called Orthodox Judaism. This course explores this process of transformation, which has had an important impact on Jewish life in the modern and post-modern eras. Cross-listed with Jewish Studies.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.343.  Dead Sea Scrolls-English.  3 Credits.  

A survey of the manuscripts found at Quran and other sites near the Dead Sea.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.346.  Introduction to the History of Rabbinic Literature.  3 Credits.  

Broadly surveying classic rabbinic literature, including the Talmud and its commentaries, the legal codes and the response, this seminar explores the immanent as well as the external factors that shaped the development of this literature, the seminal role of this literature in Jewish self-definition and self-perception, and the role of this literature in pre-modern and modern Jewish culture.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.348.  Religious Law Wrestles With Change: The Case of Judaism.  3 Credits.  

Description: "How does a religious system which defines its ancient laws as God-given and unchangeable apply them to radically different and changing social, political and intellectual situations? This course explores the literature of "Questions and Answers"(She'elot u-Teshuvot), the Jewish legal responsa which have struggled to match Jewish religious law to modern life for fifteen centuries. A sweeping survey of Jewish history as revealed by one of its most impenetrable yet fascinating sources. Cross-listed with Jewish Studies.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.353.  Space Archaeology: An Introduction to Satellite Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS.  3 Credits.  

This course introduces technologies archaeologists use to map ancient landscapes. These include Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping software, advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, and various types of satellite imagery. Taught together with AS.131.653.

Area: Natural Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.130.354.  Archaeological Method and Theory.  3 Credits.  

Climate change, population growth, war - what questions do archaeologists ask about the ancient past, how do they collect relevant evidence, and how do they arrive at satisfying answers to their questions? This course will review major theoretical currents in archaeology including evolutionary, cultural-historical, processual and post-processual approaches and discuss the future of archaeology as a scientific and humanistic discipline. Basic techniques for analyzing major categories of artifacts such as lithics, ceramics, archaeobotanical, and zooarchaeological materials will also be introduced.

Area: Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.130.357.  Geographic Information Systems in Archaeology.  3 Credits.  

Applications of GIS in archaeology have recently expanded dramatically and GIS has now become an indispensable tool for archaeological research worldwide. This course will introduce the major applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in archaeology. These include the history of GIS in archaeology, air photography and satellite imagery, predictive modeling, hydrological modeling, viewsheds, and least-cost routes. It will grapple with theoretical issues manifest in archaeological GIS including conflicts between environment and social understandings of the ancient past, and will foster discussion of issues that affect outcomes of analyses including spatial scale and boundary delineation choices that can dramatically influence results. Students will learn the basics of ESRI’s ArcGIS software. Taught with AS.131.657.

Area: Humanities, Natural Sciences

AS.130.364.  Archaeology of Arabia.  3 Credits.  

This course examines the archaeology of the Arabian Peninsula from the earliest Paleolithic in the region (c. 1.5 million years ago) through the first few centuries of the Islamic era (c. 1000 AD). We will review basic geology and environmental conditions, examine the development of animal herding and crop cultivating lifeways, and scrutinize the rise of ancient South Arabian complex societies and civilizations. Co-listed with AS.131.664.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.368.  Nomads, Tyrants and Kings: Water in the Ancient Near East.  3 Credits.  

This course explores economic and social histories of water in the ancient Near East. It examines water’s diverse roles in ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Levantine and South Arabian agriculture, politics, ritual and religion, including water’s interconnected significance in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Taught jointly with AS.131.615.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.373.  Prophets and Prophecy in the Bible.  3 Credits.  

From thundering voices of social justice to apocalyptic visionaries, biblical prophets have been revered by Jews, Christians and Muslims for thousands of years. They have inspired civic leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. yet also provided fodder for modern charlatans promising a utopian future. Yet who were these individuals (orators? politicians? diviners? poets?) and what was the full range of their message as set against the Realpolitik world of ancient Israel, Iraq, Egypt, Syria and Jordan?

Area: Humanities

AS.130.376.  Ancient Magic and Ritual.  3 Credits.  

This course will introduce students to the vast body of rituals that were practiced and performed in antiquity, with a particular emphasis on rituals from ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Hebrew Bible. In addition to examining rituals from a comparative perspective, anthropological and sociological studies of ritual will be read and discussed to shed light on the social, cultural, and political significance of ritual in the ancient world and beyond.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.378.  Geoarchaeology: Applications of Earth Science to Archaeology.  3 Credits.  

Geoarchaeology is a multidisciplinary subfield that applies the tools and techniques of earth science to understand ancient humans and their interactions with environments. This course examines basic topics and concepts, including archaeological site formation, paleo-environmental reconstruction, raw materials and resources, soil science, deposition and erosion of wind and water-borne sediments in different environments such as along rivers, lakes and coastlines, radiocarbon and other chronometric dating methods, and ground-based remote sensing, including ground penetrating radar.

Area: Natural Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.130.379.  The Development of Useful Things: Technology and Economy in the Ancient World.  3 Credits.  

This course provides an overview of technological developments in the ancient world, by foregrounding the development of objects (stone tools, pottery, metals) and of non-materialtechnologies (agriculture, animal domestication, writing).

Area: Humanities

AS.130.381.  Elementary Akkadian.  3 Credits.  

An introduction to the paleography, grammar and lexicon of the Akkadian language, and the reading of simpler texts in that language. Co-listed with AS.132.600

Area: Humanities

AS.130.382.  History of Mesopotamia II.  3 Credits.  

A survey of the history of Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.383.  Elementary Akkadian II.  3 Credits.  

An introduction to the paleography, grammar, and lexicon of the Akkadian language, and the reading of simpler texts in that language.Continues AS.130.381

Area: Humanities

AS.130.384.  Old Kingdom Art.  3 Credits.  

This course will explore the artistic expression of Egyptian culture from the 3rd through the 6th Dynasties, ca. 2700-2100 B.C. Tombs, temples, statuary, and two-dimensional wall decoration provide a large visual vocabulary of Egyptian concepts. This class will look at these elements, separately and in combination in order to consider the intentions behind the art and evaluate the degree to which religious and ideological symbolism, known from later Egyptian art, should be understood in the early pyramid-building era.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.387.  The Poetics of Biblical Prose and Verse.  3 Credits.  

An exploration of how ancient Israelite techniques of literary textual and inter-textual patterning contributes to cohesion and meaning in biblical prose and verse. Attention will be given to the distinguishing characteristics of Hebrew verse in relation to prose, and to a range of different kinds of prose in Israelite literature. These poetics will be exemplified in close readings of selected texts from the Hebrew Bible in English.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.388.  Elementary Sumerian.  3 Credits.  

An introduction to the paleography, grammar and lexicon of the Sumerian language, and the reading of simpler texts in that language.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.389.  Elementary Sumerian II.  3 Credits.  

An introduction to the paleography,, grammar and lexicon of the Sumerian language and the reading of simpler texts in that language.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.395.  Being_ in Ancient Egypt: Ethnicity, Sexuality, and Gender.  3 Credits.  

What was it like to live in ancient Egypt? At first this question may seem deceivingly straightforward. But with further thought, its complexity becomes clear. Who are we concerned with? How the king lived? A poor farmer? His wife or children? A foreign immigrant? Moreover, what is our evidence for life in Egypt? Do all of the sources support similar interpretations? Thiscourse will begin to tackle these questions by considering the experiences of different people in ancient Egypt.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.400.  Introduction To Middle Egyptian.  3 Credits.  

Introduction to the grammar and writing system of the classical language of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (ca. 2055-1650 B.C.). In the second semester, literary texts and royal inscriptions will be read. Course meets with AS.133.600.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.401.  Introduction To Middle Egyptian.  3 Credits.  

Introduction to the grammar and writing system of the classical language of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (ca. 2011- 1700 B.C.). Co-listed with AS.133.601.

Prerequisite(s): AS.130.400 or equivalent.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.420.  Seminar in Research Methods in Near Eastern Studies: Religion and Science.  3 Credits.  

This writing intensive seminar examines the relationship between religion and science in ancient Mesopotamia and the rest of the Near East from the 4th millennium to the Hellenistic period. Using a variety of case studies, and through engagement with scholarly literature pertaining to the topic of the course, students will develop skills in specific research skills such as critical reading, analysis, and interpretation.

Area: Humanities

Writing Intensive

AS.130.440.  Elementary Biblical Hebrew.  3 Credits.  

Introduction to the grammar, vocabulary, and writing system of biblical Hebrew.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.441.  Elementary Biblical Hebrew.  3 Credits.  

Survey of grammar and reading of simple texts. (Credit given only on completion of AS.130.440 and AS.130.441). May not be taken on a satisfactory/unsatisfactory basis.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.442.  Readings - Hebrew Prose.  3 Credits.  

Reading of biblical Hebrew prose, especially from the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. Cross-listed with Jewish Studies.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.443.  Reading Of Hebrew Prose.  3 Credits.  

Reading of Biblical Hebrew prose, especially from the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.446.  Readings - Hebrew Narrative and Poetry.  3 Credits.  

Intermediate readings in a variety of narratives with some exposure to poetic text

Area: Humanities

AS.130.447.  Readings - Hebrew Narrative and Poetry.  3 Credits.  

Intermediate readings in a variety of narratives with some exposure to poetic text. A continuation of AS.130.446.

Area: Humanities

AS.130.501.  Readings & Research.  3 Credits.  

Prerequisite(s): You must request Independent Academic Work using the Independent Academic Work form found in Student Self-Service: Registration > Online Forms.

AS.130.504.  Independent Study.  1 - 3 Credits.  

Prerequisite(s): You must request Independent Academic Work using the Independent Academic Work form found in Student Self-Service: Registration > Online Forms.

AS.130.505.  Independent Study-Archaeology Fieldwork.  1 Credit.  

Prerequisite(s): You must request Independent Academic Work using the Independent Academic Work form found in Student Self-Service: Registration > Online Forms.

AS.130.506.  Independent Study-Archaeology Fieldwork.  1 - 3 Credits.  

Prerequisite(s): You must request Independent Academic Work using the Independent Academic Work form found in Student Self-Service: Registration > Online Forms.

AS.130.510.  Archaeology Major Honors Thesis I.  3 Credits.  

Prerequisite(s): You must request Independent Academic Work using the Independent Academic Work form found in Student Self-Service: Registration > Online Forms.

Writing Intensive

AS.130.511.  Archaelogy Major Honors Thesis II.  3 Credits.  

Prerequisite(s): You must request Independent Academic Work using the Independent Academic Work form found in Student Self-Service: Registration > Online Forms.;AS.130.510

Writing Intensive

AS.130.590.  Independent Study.  0 - 3 Credits.  

Prerequisite(s): You must request Independent Academic Work using the Independent Academic Work form found in Student Self-Service: Registration > Online Forms.

AS.131.600.  Seminar Near Eastern History: Egypt.  

Seminar in Near Eastern History: Mesopotamia

AS.131.601.  Seminar Near Eastern History: Mesopotamia.  

A three-year history cycle required of all graduate students and forming the core of our graduate program. One year each will be devoted to Egyptian history, Mesopotamian history, and Syro-Palestinian history.

AS.131.613.  Archaeology of Africa: From Human Origins to the Emergence of Civilizations.  

This course examines Africa’s ancient past from the emergence of biologically modern humans, ancient hunter-gatherers, the earliest animal herding and farming populations, to cities and civilizations. While Egypt plays an undeniably central role in world history, this course concentrates in particular on ancient geographies other than Egypt.

Area: Humanities

AS.131.634.  Seminar: Near Eastern Archaeology.  

Topic varies but can include the archaeology of Mesopotamia, Syria, or Palestine, or thematic discussions (e.g., on ideology, state collapse, etc.).

AS.131.635.  Seminar: Near East Archaeology.  

Topic varies but can include the archaeology of Mesopotamia, Syria, or Palestine, or thematic discussions (e.g., on ideology, state collapse, etc.).

Area: Humanities

AS.131.653.  Space Archaeology: An Introduction to Satellite Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS.  

This course introduces technologies archaeologists use to map ancient landscapes. These include Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping software, advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, and various types of satellite imagery. Taught together with AS.130.353.

Area: Natural Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.131.654.  Advanced Archaeological Method and Theory.  

Climate change, population growth, war - what questions do archaeologists ask about the ancient past, how do they collect relevant evidence, and how do they arrive at satisfying answers to their questions? This course will review major theoretical currents in archaeology including evolutionary, cultural-historical, processual and post-processual approaches and discuss the future of archaeology as a scientific and humanistic discipline. Basic techniques for analyzing major categories of artifacts such as lithics, ceramics, archaeobotanical, and zooarchaeological materials will also be introduced.

Area: Humanities, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.131.657.  Geographic Information Systems in Archaeology.  

Applications of GIS in archaeology have recently expanded dramatically and GIS has now become an indispensible tool for archaeological research worldwide. This course will introduce the major applications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in archaeology. These include the history of GIS in archaeology, air photography and satellite imagery, predictive modeling, hydrological modeling, viewsheds, and least-cost routes. It will grapple with theoretical issues manifest in archaeological GIS including conflicts between environment and social understandings of the ancient past, and will foster discussion of issues that affect outcomes of analyses including spatial scale and boundary delineation choices that can dramatically influence results. Students will learn the basics of ESRI’s ArcGIS software.Taught with AS.130.357.

Area: Humanities, Natural Sciences

AS.131.664.  Archaeology of Arabia.  

This course examines the archaeology of the Arabian Peninsula from the earliest Paleolithic in the region (c. 1.5 million years ago) through the first few centuries of the Islamic era (c. 1000 AD). We will review basic geology and environmental conditions, examine the development of animal herding and crop cultivating lifeways, and scrutinize the rise of ancient South Arabian complex societies and civilizations. Co-listed with AS.130.364.

AS.131.678.  Geoarchaeology: Applications of Earth Science to Archaeology.  

Geoarchaeology is a multidisciplinary subfield that applies the tools and techniques of earth science to understand ancient humans and their interactions with environments. This course examines basic topics and concepts, including archaeological site formation, paleo-environmental reconstruction, raw materials and resources, soil science, deposition and erosion of wind and water-borne sediments in different environments such as along rivers, lakes and coastlines, radiocarbon and other chronometric dating methods, and ground-based remote sensing, including ground penetrating radar.

Area: Natural Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences

AS.131.800.  Readings & Research.  
AS.131.801.  Readings And Research.  

Area: Humanities

AS.131.848.  Dissertation Research.  
AS.131.849.  Dissertation Research.  
AS.132.600.  Elementary Akkadian.  

An introduction to the paleography, grammar and lexicon of the Akkadian language, and the reading of simpler texts in that language.

AS.132.601.  Elementary Akkadian II.  

An introduction to the paleography, grammar and lexicon of the Akkadian language, and the reading of simpler texts in that language. Undergraduates admitted to this course earn 4.5 credits per semester.

Area: Humanities

AS.132.606.  Intermediate Akkadian Texts.  

In this course a selection of intermediate level Akkadian texts from different genres and period will be read, analyzed and discussed. To build on skills learned in Introduction to Akkadian, specific emphasis will be placed on understanding more advanced grammatical forms and learning how to critically use research tools like the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary and von Soden's Akkadisches Handwoerterbuch.

AS.132.607.  Intermediate Akkadian Texts.  

In this course a selection of intermediate level Akkadian texts from different genres and period will be read, analyzed and discussed. To build on skills learned in Introduction to Akkadian, specific emphasis will be placed on understanding more advanced grammatical forms and learning how to critically use research tools like the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary and von Soden's Akkadisches Handwoerterbuch.

Area: Humanities

AS.132.608.  Akkadian Letters.  

This course introduces students to letters written in the Akkadian language from a variety of historical periods. Recommended course background: AS.132.600 and AS.132.601.

Area: Humanities

AS.132.609.  Seminar in Research Methods in Near Eastern Studies: Religion and Science.  

This writing intensive seminar examines the relationship between religion and science in ancient Mesopotamia and the rest of the Near East from the 4th millennium to the Hellenistic period. Using a variety of case studies, and through engagement with scholarly literature pertaining to the topic of the course, students will develop skills in specific research skills such as critical reading, analysis, and interpretation.

Area: Humanities

Writing Intensive

AS.132.612.  Advanced Akkadian.  

Students read texts in the original Akkadian cuneiform with attention to their philological, archaeological, historical, and literary features. The seminar topic varies from semester to semester but usually consists either of texts of various genres from a single period (e.g., Neo-Assyrian) or texts of various period from a signle genre (e.g., letters).

Area: Humanities

AS.132.630.  Akkadian Literary & Religous Texts.  

Students will read a variety of Akkadian texts commonly described as literary in the original cuneiform.

AS.132.631.  Literature and Religious Texts.  
AS.132.644.  Treaties And Diplomacy.  

Reading treaties and related materials in Akkadian.

AS.132.700.  Elementary Sumerian.  

An introduction to the paleography, grammar and lexicon of the Sumerian language, and the reading of simpler texts in that language.

Area: Humanities

AS.132.701.  Elementary Sumerian II.  

Area: Humanities

AS.132.710.  Advanced Sumerian.  

We will read Letter Collection B and related materials in the original cuneiform.

AS.132.711.  Advanced Sumerian.  

In this course a selection of Sumerian texts from different periods and genres will be read and discussed from a linguistic, philological, historical, and literary perspective.

AS.132.800.  Mesopotamian Seminar.  

Research and discussion on topics of current interest.

AS.132.801.  Mesopotamian Seminar.  

Research and discussion on topics of current interest.

Area: Humanities

AS.133.450.  Seminar in Egyptian Art and Archaeology: Approaching Egyptian Art.  3 Credits.  

A seminar-based course requiring that students have had at least one prior course in Egyptian art or archaeology. The course will consider the wide variety of ways that people analyze Egyptian art -- currently and over the last hundred twenty-five years. Art historical, anthropological, semiological, and various other approaches will be evaluated during the term. We will focus on reading authors discussing examples chosen from three millennia of art production.Recommended Course Background: At least one prior course in Egyptian art or archaeology.

Area: Humanities

AS.133.600.  Introduction To Middle Egyptian.  

Introduction to the grammar and writing system of the classical language of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (ca. 2135-2000 B.C.). In the second semester, literary texts and royal inscriptions will be read.

AS.133.601.  Introduction To Middle Egyptian (Hieroglyphs).  

Introduction to the grammar and writing system of the classical language of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (ca. 2011-1700 B.C.). Co-listed with AS.130.401

Prerequisite(s): AS.133.600 or equivalent.

Area: Humanities

AS.133.610.  Middle Egyptian Texts.  

In this course we read a variety of Middle Egyptian hieroglyphic compositions and documents. Knowledge of Middle Egyptian Required.

AS.133.611.  Middle Egyptian Texts.  

In this course we read a variety of Middle Egyptian hieroglyphic compositions and documents. Knowledge of Middle Egyptian Required.

Area: Humanities

AS.133.615.  Representation and Identity in Ancient Egypt.  

Using artistic, archaeological, and textual data, this course will apply recent anthropological and archaeological theories for understanding identity to ancient Egypt. In order to successfully approach such a broad concept, which could easily encompass many other topics, we will focus specifically on three different types of identity: ethnic (and cultural), gender, and sexual. Throughout the semester, we will explore how scholars identify past identities and the issues associated with this process. We will also consider the ways in which these identities were fluid, socially or culturally restricted, and self-defined.

Area: Humanities

AS.133.620.  Hieratic.  
AS.133.630.  Old Egyptian.  
AS.133.631.  Old Egyptian.  
AS.133.640.  Late Egyptian.  
AS.133.641.  Late Egyptian Texts.  

An introduction to the grammar and texts of Late Egyptian.

Area: Humanities

AS.133.646.  Demotic Texts.  
AS.133.647.  Demotic Texts.  

Area: Humanities

AS.133.648.  Intro To Coptic.  
AS.133.649.  Advanced Coptic.  

In this class we will read Coptic texts of various genres.

AS.133.706.  Egyptian Funerary Arts in the Archaeological Museum.  

This class will aim to cover the production and choice of funerary objects for Egyptian elite tombs in several eras of antiquity: the Middle and New Kingdoms, the Third Intermediate Period, and the Late Periods. Students will work with specific objects after learning generally about them, and they will carry out analyses of materials, pigments, construction methods, and erosion and degradation effects. They will create a virtual exhibition for the Museum's website and present their results for inclusion in the museum cataloguing project.

AS.133.750.  Seminar in Egyptian Art and Archaeology: The Amarna Period.  

This course will look at the period from the end of the reign of Amenhotep III through that of Horemheb, ca. 1350 to 1300 B.C. Social, religious, and political aspects of the period will be the focus with an emphasis on understanding how radical changes to societal structure, the economy, and foreign policy may have been and what the evidence for this is.

AS.133.751.  Seminar in Egyptian Technology: Theban Tombs.  

This course will explore the artistic expression of Egyptian culture from the 3rd through the 6th Dynasties, ca. 2700-2100 B.C. Tombs, temples, statuary, and two-dimensional wall decoration provide a large visual vocabulary of Egyptian concepts. This class will look at these elements, separately and in combination in order to consider the intentions behind the art and evaluate the degree to which religious and ideological symbolism, known from later Egyptian art, should be understood in the early pyramid-building era.

AS.134.101.  GOD 101: The Early History of God - Origin, Character, Practice.  3 Credits.  

In a world of big ideas, there is none larger than that of God. Divinity is an ever-present topic for both religious devotees and hard core secularists—for anyone who embraces the humanities or ponders what makes us human. Humans are, for better and worse, homo-religiosus (humans who practice religion) as much as homo-sapiens. But what do we know of God historically? How do we go about reconstructing divinity from ancient texts and archaeology? How do we best walk back in time to understand ancient Middle Eastern cultures that gave birth to notions of the divine that have come down to today’s Judaism, Christianity and Islam? This course looks synthetically at the vast topic of God—exploring questions of historical origin, how God was characterized in literature (mythic warrior, king, parent, judge, holy, compassionate) and how God was represented in iconography, both materially and abstractly. Secondly, how did belief intersect with practice? Using the indow of divinity, this course will peer into the varieties of religion experience, exploring the royal use of religion for power, prestige and control balanced against the intimacy of family and household religion. It will probe priestly prerogatives and cultic status, prophetic challenges to injustice, and the pondering of theodicy by poetic sages.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.400.  Northwest Semitic Epigraphy.  3 Credits.  

This course will provide an introduction to West Semitic dialects as reflected in inscriptions from the first millennium BCE. We will survey the grammar (phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon) of epigraphic Hebrew, Phoenician, and known Transjordanian languages (Moabite, Ammonite, Edomite). We will also discuss the methodological challenges inherent to the study of script evolution, scribalism, and the reconstruction of NWS languages through the study of inscriptions. This course will also introduce students to scholarship outside of the field of NWS and Hebrew Bible on literacy, the study of visual grammar, and the socio-semiotic approach to the study of writing.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.408.  The Book of Ezekiel.  3 Credits.  

A rapid reading course aimed at increasing proficiency in reading the Hebrew text of the book of Ezekiel. Various aspects of translation and interpretation will be studied (e.g., grammar, textual criticism, Philology) including literary, historical, and theological questions.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.450.  Seminar in Hebrew: Archaic Biblical Poetry.  3 Credits.  

Translation and analysis of selected texts in Biblical Hebrew giving attention to advanced features of grammar and syntax. Topic: "Archaic Biblical Poetry".

Area: Humanities

AS.134.604.  The Book Of Job.  

Reading the Hebrew text of the book of Job with attention to philology, textual criticism, and various aspects of interpretation.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.605.  Seminar in Hebrew: Second Isaiah.  

Translation, textual, philological, prosodic, literary and thematic analysis of Isaiah 40-55, with focus on how Hebrew verse as distinct from prose is constructed.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.606.  The Deuteronomistic History and the Construction of Israelite Identity.  

The Deuteronomistic History is one of the most enduring and influential theories in modern biblical scholarship. Though this theory has been criticized in recent years and no longer enjoys unanimous support, it still serves as a baseline for many scholars in the field. Whether one chooses to accept or reject this theory, discussion of its history and merits raises essential questions concerning the formation of the Hebrew Bible. This includes ancient conceptions of authorship and editing practices, the development of Israelite religious ideology, and the dating of many biblical texts. This course introduces the student to the basic history of the Deuteronomistic History as a scholarly construct, while at the same time engaging in the primary Hebrew texts. Students will readand translate biblical Hebrew for the first half of the class. During the second half of class, students will discuss and evaluate the applicability of each approach to passages in particular and the Deuteronomistic History as a whole. Special focus will be on recent criticism and defense in order to explore its continued viability.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.607.  Texts, Tablets, and Tweets: The Sociolinguistics of Writing.  

This course examines the evolution of writing and the relationship between speech and writing in ancient and modern societies. We will examine the ways in which orthography, scripts, and the visual components inherent to written language (e.g., scripts, fonts, emoticons, diacritics etc.) are used to create and/or project certain social identities in these new written spaces.A primary aim of this course is to generate discussion regarding the ways in which writing in all of its forms—at the institutional, group, and individual level, in official documents, in emails, texts, tweets, and graffiti, using standardized and non-standard orthographies, in both regulated and unregulated spaces—can be a social and often political act of identity. The writing assignments for the course will encourage you to consider the ways in which writing can be harnessed to express social identities. You will work as a group to develop your own writing system and present it to the class. This will hone your creative and critical thinking skills and give you practice collaborating on a project. You will also research and conduct an original analysis on a corpus of writing.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.608.  Book Of Ezekiel.  

A rapid reading course aimed at increasing proficiency in reading the Hebrew text of the book of Ezekiel. Various aspects of translation and interpretation will be studied (e.g., grammar, textual criticism, Philology) including literary, historical, and theological questions. Cross-listed with Jewish Studies.

AS.134.610.  Historical Hebrew Grammar.  

Phonology and morphology of Biblical Hebrew.

AS.134.612.  Qumran Aramaic.  

Readings in the Aramaic texts from Qumran, such as the Prayer of Nabonidus, the Genesis Apocryphon, Targum of Job, and the Enochic literature.Basic ability to read Aramaic is necessary.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.621.  Textual Criticism.  

An introduction to the ancient witnesses of the biblical text and the principles of textual criticism.

AS.134.623.  Pentateuch.  

This course surveys the linguistic and literary structure of the Pentateuch. A second and equally important focus will be the history of scholarship and its broader impact on the study of the history and religion of ancient Israel and Judah.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.650.  Seminar in Hebrew: Book of Jeremiah I.  

Translation and analysis of selected texts in Biblical Hebrew giving attention to advanced features of grammar and syntax. Topic: "Book of Jeremiah I".

AS.134.652.  Seminar in Ancient Israelite Religion.  

Topics include history of scholarship, methodology, representations of deity, the aniconic tradition, solar Yahwism, sacred space, blood rituals, passover, royal cult, family religion, divination, prophecy, incantations, etc.

AS.134.656.  Comparative Semitics.  

Comparative and historical analysis of the Semitic languages in their Afro-Asiatic context.

AS.134.660.  History of Ancient Syria/Palestine.  

A survey of the history of Ancient Syria and Canaan, including Ancient Israel.

AS.134.661.  History: Ancient Syria-Palestine II.  

A survey of the history of Ancient Syria and Cannan, including Ancient Israel.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.700.  Northwest Semitic Epigraphy.  
AS.134.720.  Ugaritic I.  

A year-long course studying Ugaritic language and literature. The first semester will focus on grammar and translating a representative selection of mythological texts. The second semester will concentrate on ritual texts. The course will also be epigraphic in nature using both conventional and digital techniques.

AS.134.721.  Ugaritic II.  

A continuation of AS.134.720 with emphasis on the mythological and ritual texts from Ugarit. A digital epigraphy lab will also form part of the course.

Area: Humanities

AS.134.744.  Survey Of Aramaic Texts.  

Area: Humanities

AS.134.747.  Archaic Aramaic.  

An advanced course in Aramaic devoted to the study of Old Aramaic inscriptions. We will be translating and analyzing a selection of texts from Northern Syria (e.g. Bar-Rakib; Hadad; Kuttamuwa, Nerab, Panamuwa, Sefire, Zakkur), Southern Syria (e.g. Bar-Hadad/Melqart Stela, Hazael, Tel Dan) and Northern Mesopotamia (e.g. Tell Fakhariyah). Students will be expected to vocalize such texts as a study in historical and comparative linguistics and to clarify their understanding of the morphology and syntax.

Area: Humanities