Deals with basic issues, in particular root causes and dynamics of violent conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the development of conflict management, and conflict resolution strategies. After a general introduction, selected case studies will explore these issues in their enormous complexity. Discusses basic problems of African politics and development, including the crisis of development, state failure, ethnicity as a potential source of conflict, war economies, and the relevance and problems of democratization as a means of conflict resolution. This course counts for African Studies credit. (Cross listed: IR/CM, IDEV, AFR, EM).
Deals with basic issues, in particular root causes and dynamics of violent conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the development of conflict management, and conflict resolution strategies. After a general introduction, selected case studies will explore these issues in their enormous complexity. Discusses basic problems of African politics and development, including the crisis of development, state failure, ethnicity as a potential source of conflict, war economies, and the relevance and problems of democratization as a means of conflict resolution. This course counts for African Studies credit. (Cross listed International Relations/International Development/African Studies) (CM)
Twelve students selected through an essay application process participate in a research trip to a designated conflict or post-conflict-region during the intersession. Students plan and coordinate the trip in close cooperation with Dr. Serwer and either Dr. Hopmann or Dr. Zartman, depending destination and area of expertise. Background readings and weekly briefings with local experts take place during the fall semester. During the trip, students interview local government officials and representatives of the international community, NGOs, academia and the media in order to assess the role of the international community and prospects for progress in the region. Students select a specific area of focus and write a separate analysis and review of their findings to present in a final report at SAIS during the spring. Preference is given to second-year Conflict Management students, but students from all concentrations are encouraged to apply. Applications are due around mid-September following an information session. Selected participants will be notified by early October. This course commitment spans two semesters, and is open for registration only in the Fall semester please see the Conflict Management office for more details.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Examines phases of conflict and techniques that may be introduced at various stages of conflict to halt escalation, minimize violence, and to move conflicts towards resolution. This includes an analysis of the prevention of violent conflicts, crisis management, negotiations to terminate violent conflict, the resolution and/or transformation of conflicts, and post conflict peace-building. Special emphasis will be placed on the role of third parties, such as international institutions, state governments, eminent persons, and NGOs in conflict management.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Examines bargaining and negotiations from the theoretical and policy perspectives in international diplomacy. Emphasizes the impact of the negotiation process on the outcomes of negotiations in both theory and practice, including the role of individual negotiators, domestic politics, cultural context, and the international environment. Includes an analysis of bilateral, multilateral and third party mediation on a wide range of substantive issues. Considers ways in which negotiations may ameliorate conflicts of interest and identity in international politics. Numerous case studies and simulation exercises will be utilized. Limited to 25 students.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Theory and Practice of International Peace Operations and Peacebuilding, conducted by a variety of international actors like the UN, EU, NATO, AU etc. have in recent decades become a major feature of international peace and security policy. About 200,000 international military, police, and civilians are presently working in over forty missions, most led by the UN. However, these missions are struggling with enormous difficulties: doctrinal confusion about the proper use of force, lack of clarity about the application of basic principles like consent, impartiality and credibility, overstretch and dissatisfaction with peacebuilding regarding its impact, costs and ability to achieve sustainable peace. The course will address these and related issues by exploring in particular the development UN-Peacekeeping from the Bluehelmets to the present robust, multidimensional peace operations, either in a general matter or by case studies.
This course examines mediation as short hand for third party involvement in the peaceful resolution of international or internal disputes. It defines and differentiates between inter-state and intrastate conflicts and between those revolving around access to the central organs of power and those involving the right to self-determination. The role of the United Nations in the peaceful settlement of disputes and the evolution of the role of the Secretary-General's Good Offices will be an important focus of the course. The role of regional and other inter-governmental organizations; mediation by governments as well as by NGOs and individuals will also be addressed. A series of case studies will be discussed including Afghanistan, East Timor, Cambodia and the Central American peace process (Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala). Lessons will be drawn from the successes and failures of these and other mediations including their timing and methodology, issues relating to human rights and justice and their applicability to current conflicts. (CM)
The course provides an in-depth study of the current state of the art of international mediation. The aim is to systematically approach the various uses, techniques, and problems of using mediation as a form of third party intervention to manage, resolve, or transform international conflicts. The course will offer an analysis of the history and development of international mediation as a distinct form of conflict management. The students will also get familiar with various factors that affect both the process and the outcome of international mediation. Frist of all, the course will cover a variety of contextual factors that condition any process of international mediation, such as the nature of the dispute (i.e. levels of intractability, degree of violence used, and issues at stake), disputants’ characteristics (i.e. power symmetries and asymmetries in conflict, strategies and tactics used in conflict, and capacities to rally international support) and mediators’ characteristics (i.e. perceived credibility, reputation, bias, interests and leverage which they may employ in the dispute). Secondly, the course will also provide an analysis of various behavioral factors (i.e. mediation strategies) that affect the process and outcome of international mediation. Finally, the students will also study the importance of specific types of agreements that are reached through mediation and their particular impact on both the short and long run. After completing the course the students will be able to better analyze and understand international conflicts and indicate how and why international mediation takes place. <a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Negotiation practitioners will develop insights into the negotiation process, interspersed with negotiation simulations. Prerequisite: International Bargaining and Negotiation. Limited to 12 second-year students. This course can count as the capstone requirement for the program.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
The PeaceKidZ program aims to develop children’s ability to understand, analyze and manage conflicts in their everyday lives. The program is based on the three “Rs”: Recognize—understand and analyze conflict; Respect—attitudes and awareness; and Resolve—skills and strategies. A team of second-year students develops lessons and materials for the PeaceKidZ program. Students then teach the PeaceKidZ program once a week for a period of nine weeks to children of middle-school age at a local public school or through an after-school program. Work begins in the fall and extends into the spring semester for teaching, though credit for one semester is earned. The PeaceKidZ program is open to non-Conflict Management concentrators, but a Conflict Management course is required.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Regional competition, competition for resources, ethnic, tribal and sectarian enmity, and Islamist extremism are features of civil wars in and around the Middle East. Weakened or collapsed state authority is both cause and result. Achieving security, rule of law, stable governance and economic and social well-being in this adverse context remains the formidable challenge. Failure to apply sound, context-appropriate principles can result in relapse, resort to authoritarianism, insurgency, and perpetuation of conflict. Drawing on case studies, academic literature and practitioner experience, students will learn and apply guiding principles for stabilization and reconstruction. In oral presentations, class discussion and written papers, students are encouraged to combine the theoretical and the practical, proffering their own ideas on how to manage on-going conflicts in countries like Libya, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Egypt and Mali, among others. Students will also learn essential skills in crafting and communicating effective, cogent policy proposals both orally and in writing.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Examines hands-on tactics of dispute settlement and mediation on both the local and international scenes. Although relating to conceptual approaches to mediation and negotiation, focuses primarily on interpersonal aspects and the business of bringing people to an agreement. Also looks at ethical aspects of mediation and conflict resolution.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
This practicum course will enable a team of 6-8 SAIS students from various programs to respond to issues raised by trade in and destruction of cultural artifacts as a result of contemporary conflicts, especially in the Middle East. The Antiquities Coalition, a nongovernmental organization concerned with these issues, will function as a client posing questions in comparative and international law as well as US and UN policy and practice. Students will prepare their own "capstone" quality papers suitable for publication in addition to briefing the Antiquities Coalition and presenting their findings orally to a public audience. The course will include an opportunity to interact in person with Assistant Secretary of State for Education and Culture Evan Ryan.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Violent extremism has become a national security threat in many parts of the Middle East, Africa and Asia, as well as Europe and the United States. What works and what doesn't in responding to this unconventional threat, both on the battlefield in Iraq, Syria and Libya as well as in communities where extremists undertake terrorist attacks? How should we deal with violent extremism? This practicum will look at the full range of policy instruments available to prevent, counter and rebuild after conflict with violent extremists, both at home and abroad: military, intelligence and law enforcement, economic, trade and financial sanctions, public affairs messaging, community-level and other counter-recruitment efforts, international coalition-building, signaling and negotiations during conflict, and rebuilding after the defeat of extremists. While the military approach is indispensable, the present course aims to explore a broader range of approaches pertinent to the field of conflict management. The course will also explore horizontal networks and vertical hierarchical ties that connect transnational extremist organizations with their various local affiliates and those whom they inspire to violent acts. It will be of great interest for students interested to learn more about the contemporary challenges to international peace and security posed by transnational extremism, and best methods for managing those volatile dynamics. Students register in the fall for audit and enroll in the spring for credit.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Prerequisite(s): Students may not register for this class if they have already received credit for SA.640.758[C]
This course examines violence of varying types and scales that occurs mainly within the territory of nominally sovereign states. The main objective is to survey and critically examine the most important developments in the literature on armed conflict over the past two decades. Why do armed conflicts begin? Why do nonviolent conflicts escalate? Why do armed actors kill some civilians and not others? Why does violence “work” to solve political problems in some instances but "fail" in others? Why do armed actors resort to particular forms of violence (e.g. torture) in some contexts but not others? In general, the focus will be on the causes and dynamics of violence, rather than on the origins or historical development of the social and political conflicts in which violence is embedded. This course has no explicit regional focus and no formal prerequisites.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
This course will explore comparatively the patterns of socio-political protest activity and revolt. During the first half we shall read and discuss various theoretical approaches. The second half will be devoted to the use of these analytic orientations to analyze and understand specific cases. Throughout we shall be concerned with why various protest activities occur, what conditions promote or inhibit their growth, what course they are likely to take under different circumstances, which outcomes are most probable depending on the context, and how they can be managed or resolved at various stages. This inquiry should thus be of interest to students wishing to test the insights of the literature on social change and on conflict management, as well as those in African Studies and other area concentrations. <a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Prerequisite(s): Students may not register for this class if they have already received credit for SA.780.712[C]
Governments pursue international negotiations to achieve outcomes that they cannot obtain through unilateral action. Trade and environment negotiations have become particularly important in this regard, as their political and economic saliency increase. This course will first focus on environment negotiations, particularly those related to establishing, maintaining, revising, and expanding the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Paris Agreement on climate change. The second half of the semester focuses on trade negotiations, with case studies drawn from bilateral negotiations as well as talks under the frameworks of the World Trade Organization and the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the United Kingdom’s need for new trade agreements with its trading partners as part of its Brexit negotiations. An understanding of negotiation theory and how environment and trade negotiations are conducted will help the student to analyze the evolving international institutions in these issue areas as well as to make policy recommendations to adjust the process and outcomes of future negotiating rounds.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
This class examines the ways in which people seek protection from harm, shifting the point of reference of security from the defense of the state against foreign military threats to the protection of individuals from a range of threats (which can be caused by states or non-state actors) that are more in line with today’s interconnected and globalized world. These include terrorism, environmental disasters, human rights violations, cyber threats, pandemics, migration, etc. The class will also cover humanitarian intervention and peacebuilding, structural violence, UNDP as a proponent of the concept of human security, technology and conflict, and gender and race as intervening variables in who is protected and what means are used to protect them, among other topics.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Genocide is often described as the worst of crimes, the nadir of human behavior, and the world’s most “odious scourge.” The goal of this course is to examine the origins and causes of genocide and to introduce students to the key works and major debates in the growing field of genocide and mass violence research. This course is divided into three parts. First, we will discuss how genocide is conceptualized and defined, explore the theories that try to explain why genocides occur, and discuss why people may participate in genocidal killing. In the second part we will examine several key case studies of genocide and mass violence. Third, we will complete the course by debating policy approaches to genocide and mass violence including prevention, intervention, post-genocide justice, reconciliation and memory.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
Intra-state violence is undergoing important changes. New technologies, such as social media and cell phones affect how and where violence begins and how conflict is conducted. New phenomena, such as climate change or mass migration help to explain the outbreak of many violent episodes. New participants, such as criminal cartels, private security firms or religiously driven lone wolves expand the number of relevant actors beyond the previously prevalent government vs. rebels framework. New analytical tools, such as big data and field experiments shape the policies designed to prevent, manage, and mitigate intra-state conflict and violence. This class will focus on these new developments, how they affect contemporary intra-state conflict and the long term impact they are expected to have. Finally, we will try to come up with a holistic, more comprehensive picture of how violent intra-state conflict is going to look like in the near future as well as potential responses to these recent changes and developments. <a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>
This course provides an understanding of the risks associated with political competition and conflict in cyberspace. The course is organized in three parts. Drawing on information studies, game theory and arms control, as well as on the conflict resolution literature, Part I aims to enable students to understand cyberconflict, analyze risk associated with state actions in cyberspace, and develop cyberconflict mitigation strategies. Beginning with a review of actors, weapons, and targets as well as the evolving architecture of the internet from a geopolitical perspective, the course deploys game theory as a methodological framework for cyberconflict. A double session focuses on data-based political manipulation as a critical but distinct cyber front. Part I then concludes with a session comparing national cyber strategies of the US, EU, China, Iran, and Russia.Having established a basis for analysis, Part II next examines risk mitigation strategies. This segment begins by evaluating efforts to establish norms for state behavior in cyberspace as well as legal frameworks, domestic and extra-territorial, in the US and EU. The following session focuses on the politics of and compliance with the 2015 US-China accord as the most important bilateral cyber restraint agreement to date. An in-class examination ensures students’ grasp of the basics of cyber risk and stability in cyberspace. A more technical session evaluating the risk management industry’s engagement in cyber, including an introduction to cyber insurance and risk modeling, follows the examination. Part III applies the historical knowledge and conceptual approaches studied in Parts I and II to key cyber conflict arenas. A course review concludes the seminar.
Constitutes a seminar within which students research and write their program paper, a publishable quality paper normally 30-40 pages in length, on a research topic selected in consultation with the course instructor; these papers may build upon papers submitted in prior courses, but they should entail considerable additional research and analysis. The seminar will provide a general introduction to issues of research design, focusing on the relationship between conflict management theory and empirical research regarding conflict prevention, management, resolution, and post-conflict peace-building. All students will make oral presentations about their research design to the seminar in order to receive early feedback from the instructor and fellow students. Drafts of the research paper must be submitted by the end of the first full week in April. Papers must be accepted and course requirements must be completed prior to graduation; candidates for honors must have their papers approved prior to scheduling the oral examination, normally no later than May 1, so almost finished drafts must be submitted by April 1 by all students planning to take the honors oral examination.<a href="http://bit.ly/1bebp5s" target="_blank">Click here to see evaluations, syllabi, and faculty bios</a>